大学英语四级考试冲刺模拟试卷 第3套(阅读)

Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)
Section A


It is hardly surprising that something called dark energy is hard to study. It is important, though. If it exists at all, it makes up about three-quarters of the stuff in the universe. And if it does not exist, then existing theories of physics will have to be useless.
The latest evidence that dark energy really does exist was produced on December 16th by Alexey Vikhlinin, of the Smithsonian Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and his colleagues. They used an orbiting X-ray telescope called Chandra to study the way that groups of galaxies grow. They discovered that this growth is restrained in exactly the way that dark-energy theory predicts.
The idea of dark energy was dreamed up ten years ago, to explain why the expansion of the universe that began with the Big Bang seems to be accelerating, rather than slowing down. That unexpected finding was the result of studies of supernovas (超新星) whose apparent brightness (and therefore distance) did not match the previous theory. Dark energy causes the acceleration by pushing space itself apart, altering the distances to the supernovas as it does so.
Dark energy is also a convenient explanation for another curiosity. Geometrically, space is flat. For it to be held that way, rather than getting more and more curved over time, the amount of matter and energy it contains must be at a particular, critical density. Without the dark energy needed to explain the acceleration, the universe would have only a quarter of the necessary density. It is therefore a relief that Dr Vikhlinin's results agree with the theory: the pushing apart of space that dark energy causes makes it harder than it otherwise would be for galactic clusters(银河星团) to grow.

This result does not bring physicists much closer to understanding what dark energy actually is. The favored explanation is the so-called universal constant -- an as-yet-unobserved consequence of the general theory of relativity. But that theory predicts a force far more powerful than the one actually seen. So the truth is that physicists are still in the dark.
47. If by any chance there is no dark energy, theories of physics will be ______.

答案:useless
[定位] 由题干中的theories of physics可将本题定位于第一段最后一句And if it does not exist,the nexisting theories of physics will have to be useless.
[精解] 由定位句可知,如果黑色能量不存在的话,那么现存的物理学理论也没有任何用途了,可知本题答案为 useless。
48. Alexey Vikhlinin tried to study how clusters of galaxies grow by using ______.

答案: an orbiting X-ray telescope called Chandra
[定位] 由题干中的Alexey Vikhlinin...study how clusters of galaxies grow by...可将本题定位于第二段第二句They used an orbiting X-ray telescope called Chandra to study the way that groups of galaxies grow.
[精解] 由定位句可知,研究者们在实验过程中使用的是旋转的X射线望远镜——Chandra来观测星系群形成的过程的,可知本题答案为an anorbiting X-ray telescope called Chandra。
49. Where did the physicists get the fact that universe expansion is accelerating?

答案:From the result of studies of supernovas
[定位] 由题干中的Where...get universe expansion is accelerating可将本题定位于第三段第二句That unexpected finding was the result of studies of supernovas...
[精解] 由定位句可知,物理学家研究超新星时得到了这一出乎意料的发现。又根据句中指示代词“that”的指代关系,可知“出乎意料的发现”是指宇宙扩张速度加快,从而推知研究学家们是通过对超新星的研究发现宇宙扩张在加速这一事实的,故本题答案是From the result of studies of supernovas。
50. In order to maintain the flatness of space, its substance and energy should be kept at a ______.

答案:particular,critical density
[定位] 由题干中的maintain the flatness of space可将本题定位于第四段第二、三句Geometrically,space is fiat.For it to be held that way,rather than getting more and more curved over time,the amount of matter and energy it contains must be at a particular,critical density.
[精解] 由定位句可知,空间从几何学来说是平的,为了维持这种平坦的状态,其间所含的物质和能量必须保持一个特殊的临界密度(particular,critical density),故本题答案是particular,critical density。
51. As for dark energy, what is favored by the physicists to explain it?

答案:The so-called universal constant.
[定位] 由题干中的what is favored by the physicists可将本题定位于最后一段第二句The favored explanation is the so-called universal constant--an as-yet-unobserved consequence of the general theory of relativity.
[精解] 由定位句可知,物理学家们倾向于认为“黑色能量”就是所谓的宇宙恒量,是广义相对论尚未观察到的结果,可知物理学家们喜欢将黑色能量解释成The so-called universal constant。
Section B
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Passage One
After the stock-market crash of October 1929 it took over three years for America's government to launch a series of dramatic efforts to end the Depression, starting with Roosevelt's declaration of a four-day bank holiday in March 1933. In-between, America saw the worst economic collapse in its history. Thousands of banks failed, a damaging deflation set in, output declined by a third and unemployment rose to 25%. The Depression brought enormous damage across the globe, but most of all on America's economy. As a result, the boundaries between government and markets were redrawn.
During the past month, little more than a year after the financial storm first struck in August 2007, America's government made its most dramatic interventions in financial markets since the 1930s. At the time it was not even certain that the economy was in recession and unemployment stood at 6.1%. In two unstable weeks the Federal Reserve and the Treasury between them nationalized the country's two mortgage giants, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac; took over AIG, the world's largest insurance company; in effect extended government deposit insurance to $ 3.4 trillion in money-market funds; temporarily banned short-selling in over 900 mostly financial stocks; and, most dramatic of all, sworn to take up to $700 billion of bad mortgage-related assets on to its books. The Fed and the Treasury were determined to prevent the kind of banking disaster that caused the Depression. Shellshocked lawmakers were picky, but Congress and the administration eventually agreed.
The landscape of American finance has been radically changed. The independent investment bank -- a crucial Wall Street animal that relied on high leverage(杠杆作用) and wholesale funding -- is now all but disappear. Lehman Brothers has gone bust; Bear Steams and Merrill Lynch have been swallowed by commercial banks; and Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley 'have become commercial banks themselves. The "shadow banking system" is transforming at lightning speed. And in little more than three weeks America's government, all told, expanded its gross liabilities(负债) by more than $1 trillion -- almost twice as much as the cost so far of the Iraq war.
Beyond that, few things are certain. In late September the turmoil spread and intensified. Money markets seized up across the globe as banks refused to lend to each other. Five European banks failed and European governments fell over themselves to support their banking systems with rescues and guarantees. As this special report went to press, it was too soon to declare the crisis contained.
52. What does the author tell us about the situation of 1929's Depression?
A) A damaging inflation ensued after the bankruptcy of many banks.
B) American economy resumed only after a series of efforts taken by government.
C) Its damaging effect is the same on both the globe and America.
D) The relationship between market and government was not tainted.

答案:B
[定位] 由题干中的the situation of 1929's Depression可将本题定位于第一段第一句After the stock-market crash of October 1929...[精解] 事实细节题。由定位句可知从1929年10月股票市场崩溃标志着大萧条的开始,下文对其情况的描述。第一句后半句提到it took over three years for America's government to launch a series of dramatic efforts to end the Depression.可见美国政府采取了一系列的措施才使本次大萧条结束,B)符合题意。[避错]第一段第三句提到Thousands of banks failed,a damaging deflation set in...,可见期间发生的是通货紧缩(deflation),并不是通货膨胀(inflation),A)错误;第四句提到The Depression brought enormous damage across the globe,but most of all on America's economy,可见本次危机对美国破坏比较严重,C)错误;最后一句提到As a result,the boundaries between government and markets were redrawn,可见因为本次危机,政府和市场的关系得到改变,D)错误。
53. What measures were taken by the Federal Reserve and the Treasury under present situation?
A) The country's two mortgage giants were nationalized in two weeks.
B) The short-selling in over 900 financial stocks was banned forever.
C) Government deposit insurance was extended to $700 billion.
D) About $700 billion poisonous assets related to mortgage was confiscated.

答案:A
[定位] 由题干中的the measures...taken by the Federal Reserve and the Treasury可将本题定位于第二段第一句America's government made its most dramatic interventions in financial markets since the 1930s..,[精解] 事实细节题。由定位句可知,第二段主要讲述美国政府在当前形势下采取的措施:其中第三句提到...the Federal Reserve and the Treasury between them nationalized the country's two mortgage giants...,国内两大抵押大亨在两周之内被国有化,A)符合题意;[避错]第二段第六句提到...temporarily banned short-selling in over 900 mostly financial stocks...可见900多金融股票只是被临时禁止发行 (temporarily banned),并不是永远禁止(banned forever).B)错误;第五句提到...extended government deposit insurance to $3.4 trillion in money-market funds,可见其增加的数目并不是billion,C)错误;第七句提到...sworn to take up to $700 billion of bad mortgage-related assets on to its books,可见没收不良抵押资金只是一个计划,日前尚未进行,D)错误。
54. What is Congress and the administration's attitude towards the Fed and the Treasury' actions?
A) They think their actions are too dramatic for the situation.
B) Being picky at first, they finally support their actions.
C) They totally approve of the dramatic interventions for the experience of 1929.
D) They think the banking catastrophe now is not a big deal.

答案:B
[定位] 由题干中的Congress and the administration's attitude可将本题定位于第二段最后一句Shellshocked lawmakers were picky,but Congress and the administration eventually agreed.[精解] 观点态度题。由定位句可知,国会和政府对美联储和财政部大刀阔斧改革的态度原来是疲于迎战(shell-shocked)和挑剔的(picky),但他们最终还是同意了(eventually agreed),B)符合题意。[避错]文中没有提及A)... their actions are too dramatic...、D)...catastrophe is not a big deal...,故A)、D)两项错误;由精解可知,他们起初的态度并不是完全支持的(totally approve),C)错误。
55. The great changes happening to American finance can be reflected by ______.
A) the gradual transformation of shadow banking system
B) the prosperity of independent investment bank Wall Street relies on
C) the bankruptcy of Bear Stearns and Merrill Lynch after being swallowed
D) the conversion of Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley to commercial banks

答案:D
[定位] 由题干中的The great changes happening to American finance可将本题定位于第三段第一句The landscape of American finance has been radically changed.[精解] 事实细节题。由定位句可知,本段描述美国金融市场发生的剧烈变化,下文是对各种变化的描述;第五句提到Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley have become commercial banks themselves,可见这两大银行自身也转为商业银行,D)符合题意。[避错]本段倒数第二句提到The "shadow banking system" is transforming at lightning speed,可见其变化是飞速的(lightning speed),并不是渐进的(gradual),A)错误;第二句提到The independent investment bank...is now all but disappear,可见独立投资银行当前并不繁荣(prosperity),B)错误;第四句提到Bear Stearns and Merrill Lynch have been swallowed by commercial banks,并未提及其破产(bankruptcy),C)错误。
56. The last sentence of the passage means that ______.
A) written on short notice, the report can hardly cover the entire crisis
B) everything being unfixed and uncertain, this report can not include the entire crisis now
C) this is only a special report, with no aim to contain the entire crisis
D) this report may not be received by the press

答案:B
[定位] 由题干可知本题考查文章最后一句话As this special report went to press,it was too soon to declare the crisis contained.[精解] 语义理解题。由最后一段可知目前各地金融混乱在不停蔓延加剧,什么事情都不确定,因此作者才发出了As this special report went to press,it was too soon to declare the crisis contained这一感叹,可知其意思是,当前情势不定的情况下,到这篇报道被发表时,可能就不能包括那时的情况了,B)符合题意。[避错]本文强调的是当前形势变幻无常,并不是说这篇报道时间仓促(on short notice),A)错误;C)和D)文中都没有提及,排除。
Passage Two
On the shelves of the country's shops is the usual classification of toys, clothing, appliances and cookware. But over the past month the quality of many of the goods on offer has improved. In part this is because scandals over toxic paint have brought closer scrutiny from inspectors and hence less corner-cutting. But it is also partly because of falling demand for its goods from other countries, which has given its manufacturers and local government a big incentive to work around the country's exportpromotion policies and to sell at home.
Its manufacturers are well aware that they operate in one of the few large markets that is still showing a pulse. Retail sales in October were up by 22% compared with the same month in 2007 -- a slight drop from 23.2% in September, but an impressive figure nonetheless. That certainly exaggerates the country's economic vigor, but it would be a stretch to believe that the country is in recession.
As domestic consumption increases, its export-oriented manufacturers are under siege (围攻). Figures announced on December 10th showed that exports fell by a startling 2.2% in November, compared with a year earlier. Analysts had expected an increase of around 15%; it was the first fall in exports for seven years. The news followed a government survey, released on December 1st, that showed a sharp decline in the fortunes of export manufacturers, confirming lots of anecdotal evidence. Diverting goods intended for export to the domestic market makes sense for factory owners, who want their firms to survive, and for local officials, who wish to maintain order.
As a result of pressure from its trading partners, these tax rebates (折扣) on exports had been contracting. But in November a new stimulus plan was announced that increased the rebates on more than 3,000 items. Evidently its officials hope the country can once again export its way to higher growth, despite the financial troubles in its main markets.
One solution is to route goods to the domestic market via a port city, so that they qualify as exports, but this takes time and money and strikes many operators as a huge waste of both. The sudden appearance of higher-quality goods suggests that officials are being less eager than usual in enforcing the export rules.
Its consumers, for their part, must surely be pleased that they can buy better products at low prices. A year ago, the boom(繁荣) was expected to be the means of breaking down the divide between its domestic and export-led economies. But perhaps a bust is what was required.
57. What has happened to the shelves of the country's shop over the past month?
A) All the goods were classified into different categories.
B) Toxic paint was forcibly taken out of shelves.
C) The quality of goods has been greatly improved.
D) There are fewer brands from the foreign countries.

答案:C
[定位] 由题干中的the shelves of the country's shop over the past month可将本题定位于第一段第二句...over the past month the quality of many of the goods on offer has improved.[精解] 事实细节题。由定位句可知在刚过去的一个月里,货架上很多产品的质量变好了,C)符合题意。[避错]第一句提到On the shelves of the country's shops is the usual classification...,由usual一词可知将商品分类摆放是一种惯例,不是上个月发生的变化,A)错误;B)...forcibly taken out of shelves文中并没有提及,错误;最后一句提到falling demand for its goods intended from other countries,即外国对其商品的需求在降低,但并未提及其货架上的外国品牌的数量减少,D)错误。
58. What can we learn about the situation now confronted by its manufacturers?
A) They are facing mounting demand from partners in abroad market.
B) Those mainly undertaking export business will also benefit a lot.
C) They are quite clear with the surrounding environment situated in.
D) They should bear in mind that its economy is in recession.

答案:C
[定位] 由题干中的the situation...confronted by its manufacturers可将本题定位于第二段第一句Its manufacturers are well aware that they operate in one of the few large markets that is still showing a pulse.[精解] 事实细节题。由定位句可知,其制造商知道全球大市场的情势都在波动,可见他们很清楚自己所处的环境,C)符合题意。[避错]第一段最后一句提到falling demand for its goods from other countries,可见国外市场对其商品的需求在下降,并没有大量的需求(mounting demand),A)错误;第三段第一句提到its export-oriented manufacturers are under siege,可见出口型制造商现在的处境并不乐观,B)错误;第二段最后一句指出it would be a stretch to believe that the country is in recession,可见作者并不认为其经济不景气,D)错误。
59. In author's opinion, the sudden appearance of higher-quality goods suggests its officials ______.
A) become more concerned about the quality and domestic market
B) turn to other ways to stimulate and enforce export rules
C) have to improve goods' quality for the qualification of exports
D) want consumers to buy better products at low prices

答案:A
[定位] 由题干中的the sudden appearance of higher-quality goods suggests...可将本题定位于第五段最后一句The sudden appearance of higher-quality goods suggests that officials are being less eager than usual in enforcing the export rules.[精解] 事实细节题。由定位句可知,高质量产品的突然出现表明该国官员们对执行出口规则的热情已不比从前;第三段最后一句提到Diverting goods intended for export to the domestic market makes sense...,可见官员们开始更加关心产品质量和国内市场,A)符合题意。[避错]由精解可知该国已经从刺激出口转向国内市场,B)错误;C)和D)在文中虽有提及,但并不是作者表达的观点,两项均错。
60. What happened to the export manufacturers according to the news on December 1st?
A) The exports fell by 2.2% in November, quite a shock to them.
B) They suffered the first fall in exports for seven years.
C) Their fortunes underwent a steep fall attesting to some evidence.
D) Their retail price experienced a slight drop but still an impressive figure.

答案:C
[定位] 由题干中的the export manufacturers 和 the news on December 1st可将本题定位于第三段第四句 The news followed a government survey,released on December 1st,that showed a sharp decline in the fortunes of export manufacturers,confirming lots of anecdotal evidence.[精解] 事实细节题。由定位句可知,根据12月1日的消息,出口制造商的资产急剧下降,证实了最近的很多流言,C)符合题意。[避错]第三段第二句提到Figures announced on December 10th showed that exports fell by a startling 2.2% in November...it was the first fall in exports for seven years,可知出口在11月份下降了2.2%,是7年以来的首次下跌,但这一结果是12月10日发布的,并不是12月1日的数据,A)、B)错误;第二段第二句提到 Retail sales in October were up by 22%...an impressive figure nonetheless,可见零售额没有下降,而且该数据也并不是12月1日消息的内容,D)错误。
61. We can infer from the last paragraph that ______.
A) its consumers can buy better product at lower price
B) boom is expected by all countries under all situations
C) recession may connect domestic and export-led economies
D) the economy of a country needs both boom and bust

答案:C
[定位] 由题干可知本题考查文章最后一段的理解。[精解] 推理判断题。最后一段第二:句提到A year ago, the boom was expected to be the means of breaking down the divide between its domestic and exportled economies.But perhaps a bust is what was required,可见人们原wyzfox.com以打破国内经济和出口经济的鸿沟,但现在却发现经济衰退才可以起这个作用,可推断经济不景气可能会成为连接二者桥梁, C)符合题意。[避错]最后一段第一句明确提到Its consumers...must surely be pleased that they can buy better products at low prices,A)不是推断所得,错误;B)和D)文中并没有提及,排除。

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