英语四级考试阅读30天学习笔记(14)

Statuses are marvelous human inventions that enable us to get along with one another and to determine where we "fit" in society. As we go about our everyday lives, we mentally attempt to place people in terms of their statuses. For example, we must judge whether the person in the library is a reader or a librarian, whether the telephone caller is a friend or a salesman, whether the unfamiliar person on our property is a thief or a meter reader, and so on.
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage:
31. According to the passage the Jarvik-7 artificial heart proved to be ________.
A) a technical failure
B) a technical wonder
C) a good life saver
D) an effective means to treat heart disease
32. From the passage we know that Symbion Inc. ________.
A) has been banned by the government from producing artificial hearts
B) will review the effects of artificial hearts before designing new models
C) may continue to work on new models of reliable artificial hearts
D) can make new models of artificial hearts available on the market in 10 to 20 years
33. The new models of artificial hearts are expected _________.
A) to have a working life of 10 or 20 years
B) to be set fully in the patient's chest
C) to be equipped with an external power source
D) to create a new passage for infection
34. The word "them" in Line 7, Para. 2 refers to _________.
A) doctors who treat heart diseases
B) makers of artificial hearts
C) America's health-care programs

D) new models of artificial hearts
注:指代题
35. Some people feel that _________.
A) artificial hearts are seldom effective
B) the country should not spend so much money on artificial hearts
C) the country is not spending enough money on artificial hearts
D) America's health-care programs are not doing enough for the nation's health

Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage:
Just seven years ago, the Jarvik-7 artificial heart was being cheered as the model of human creativeness. The sight of Barney Clark - alive and conscious after trading his diseased heart for a metal-and-plastic pump - convinced the press, the public and many doctors that the future had arrived. It hadn't. After monitoring production of the Jarvik-7, and reviewing its effects on the 150 or so patients (most of whom got the device as a temporary measure) the U.S. Food and Drug Administration concluded that the machine was doing more to endanger lives than to save them. Last week the agency cancelled its earlier approval, effectively banning (禁止) the device.
注:1.cheer 欢呼、喝彩
2.convince 使……相信
3.monitor 监视
4.review 回顾
5.the U.S. Food and Drug Administration 美国食物药品管理局简写FDA
●成果型文章:
1.文章中只有一个成果,作者正评价
2.文中出现新、老两个成果,新成果正评,老成果负评,抓住正负评价原因
3.抓住新老成果各自技术特点

The recall may hurt Symbion Inc, maker of the Jarvik-7, but it won't end the request for an artificial heart. One problem with the banned model is that the tubes connecting it to an external power source created a passage for infection (感染). Inventors are now working on new devices that would be fully placed, along with a tiny power pack, in the patient's chest. The first sample products aren't expected for another 10 or 20 years. But some people are already worrying that they'll work - and that America's overextended health-care programs will lose a precious $2.5 billion to $5 billion a year providing them for a relatively few dying patients. If such expenditures (开支) cut into funding for more basic care, the net effect could actually be a decline in the nation's health.
注:1.recall 取消,re 有“向后”含义
2.看到Symbion Inc.就把32题标在这里;看到new devices就把33题标在这里。
3.external 外部的,passage 通道
4.work 可行、有效,they 指代前文 the first sample product
5.providing 引导现在分词做状语
指代题做法:1.将代词所在句代词之前部分的名词以及代词之前句子的名词划出
2.根据单复数缩小范围
3.注意结合动词判断所指代为人、事或物
34. The word "them" in Line 7, Para. 2 refers to _________.
A) doctors who treat heart diseases
B) makers of artificial hearts
C) America's health-care programs
D) new models of artificial hearts
注:指代题,按照指代题的作法解题
31. According to the passage the Jarvik-7 artificial heart proved to be ________.
A) a technical failure
B) a technical wonder
C) a good life saver
D) an effective means to treat heart disease
注:对老成果负评价
32. From the passage we know that Symbion Inc. ________.
A) has been banned by the government from producing artificial hearts
B) will review the effects of artificial hearts before designing new models
C) may continue to work on new models of reliable
artificial hearts
D) can make new models of artificial hearts available on the market in 10 to 20 years
注:屡败屡战。A 选项为泛指而文章为特指;B 选项为窜段选项,另外选项中的 artificial hearts 扩大了文章中的指代范围。
二段首句:The recall may hurt Symbion Inc, maker of the Jarvik-7, but it won't end the request for an artificial heart.
33. The new models of artificial hearts are expected _________.
A) to have a working life of 10 or 20 years
B) to be set fully in the patient's chest
C) to be equipped with an external power source
D) to create a new passage for infection
注:第二段考新成果的技术特点

35. Some people feel that _________.
A) artificial hearts are seldom effective
B) the country should not spend so much money on artificial hearts
C) the country is not spending enough money on artificial hearts
D) America's health-care programs are not doing enough for the nation's health
注:定位第二段 But some people are already worrying ...
The recall may hurt Symbion Inc, maker of the Jarvik-7, but it won't end the request for an artificial heart. One problem with the banned model is that the tubes connecting it to an external power source created a passage for infection (感染). Inventors are now working on new devices that would be fully placed, along with a tiny power pack, in the patient's chest. The first sample products aren't expected for another 10 or 20 years. But some people are already worrying that they'll work - and that America's overextended health-care programs will lose a precious $2.5 billion to $5 billion a year providing them for a relatively few dying patients. If such expenditures (开支) cut into funding for more basic care, the net effect could actually be a decline in the nation's health.
Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage:
56.The passage is meant to _________.
A) warn young people of the wyzfox.com successful writer has to experience
B) advise young people to give up their idea of becoming a professional writer
C) show young people it' s unrealistic for a writer to pursue wealth and fame
D) encourage young people to pursue a writing career
57. What can be concluded from the passage?
A) Genuine writers often wyzfox.com interesting and rewarding.
B) A writer s success depends on luck rather than on effort.
C) Famous writers usually live in poverty and isolation.
D) The chances for a writer to become successful are small.
58. Why did the author begin to doubt himself after the first year of his writing career?
A) He wasn' t able to produce a single book.
B) He hadn't seen a change for the better.
C) He wasn' t able to have a rest for a whole year.
D) He found his dream would never come true.
59. "... people who die wondering, What if?" (Line 3, Para. 3) refers to "those
A) who think too much of the dark side of life
B) who regret giving up their career halfway
C) who think a lot without making a decision
D) who are full of imagination even upon death
60. "Shadowland" in the last sentence refers to _________
A) the wonderland one often dreams about
B) the bright future that one is looking forward to
C) the state of uncertainty before one' s final goal is reached
D) a world that exists only in one's imagination

Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage:
Many a young person tells me he wants to be a writer. I always encourage such people, but I also explain that there's a big difference between "being a writer" and writing. In most cases these individuals are dreaming of wealth and fame, not the long hours alone at a typewriter. "You've got to want to write," I say to them, "not want to be a writer."
注:1.一段首句细节,二段首句是文章主题句,本文为文科文章,以态度为切入点
2.But 转折,表明了作者负态度,但I always encourage such people, but I also... 全句来看是混合(中立)态度。
The reality is that writing is a lonely, private and poor-paying affair. For every writer kissed by fortune there are thousands more whose longing is never rewarded. When I left a 20-year career in the U.S. Coast Guard to become a freelance writer (自由撰稿者), I had no prospects at all: What I did have was a friend who found me my room in a New York apartment building. It didn't even matter that it was cold and had no bathroom. I immediately bought a used manual typewriter and felt like a genuine writer.
注:1.fortune 幸运,财富
2.本段首句主题句,第二段结论句,career 事业,经历
3.manual 手动 genuine 真正的 gene 基因
After a year or so, however, I still hadn't gotten a break and began to doubt myself. It was so hard to sell a story that barely made enough to eat. But I knew I wanted to write. I had dreamed about it for years. I wasn't going to be one of those people who die wondering; what if? I would keep putting my dream to the test --- even though it meant living with uncertainty and fear of failure. This is the Shadowland of hope, and anyone with a dream must learn to live there.
注:After a year 对应58题
59. "... people who die wondering, What if?" (Line 3, Para. 3) refers to "those _________"
A) who think too much of the dark side of life
B) who regret giving up their career halfway
C) who think a lot without making a decision
D) who are full of imagination even upon death
注:不能根据字面意思,要看上下文关系来做。
●句子含义题做题方法:根据上下句之间相同、相反或
解释说明等关系做题。根据该句话本身字面意思得出的选项为干扰选项。(该原则适用于词汇题)
60. "Shadowland" in the last sentence refers to _________
A) the wonderland one often dreams about
B) the bright future that one is looking forward to
C) the state of uncertainty before one's final goal is reached
D) a world that exists only in one's imagination
注:出现在最后一句,但应从前一句中寻找答案。A、B和D项都是字面意思
56.The passage is meant to _________.
A) warn young people of the wyzfox.com successful writer has to experience
B) advise young people to give up their idea of becoming a professional writer
C) show young people it' s unrealistic for a writer to pursue wealth and fame
D) encourage young people to pursue a writing career
注:1.主题题。二段首句是文章主题句,本文为文科文章,以态度为切入点。
2.B和C项都是片面负态度,而文章中作者持混合(中立)态度,故可以排除这两项
57. What can be concluded from the passage?
A) Genuine writers often wyzfox.com interesting and rewarding.
B) A writer s success depends on luck rather than on effort.
C) Famous writers usually live in poverty and isolation.
D) The chances for a writer to become successful are small.
注:推理题。第二段第二句的同义改写,定位方法:顺序原则(58题的关键词出现在第三段,所以此题应该是在第二段)

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