News 1

A 9-year-old girl in New Mexico has raised more than $500 for her little brother who needs heart surgery in Houston Texas this July. Addison Witulski's grandmother Kim Allred said Addison probably overheard a conversation between family members talking about the funds needed to get her little brother to treatment.

" I guess she overheard her grandfather and me talking about how we’re worried about how we’re going to get to Houston, for my grandson’s heart surgery,” said Allred. She decided to go outside and have a lemonade stand and make some drawings and pictures and sell them.”

That’s when Addison and her friends Erika and Emily Borden decided to sell lemonade for 50 cents a cup and sell pictures for 25 cents each.

Before Allred knew it, New Mexico State Police Officers were among the many, stopping by helping them reach a total of $568. The family turned to social media expressing their gratitude saying, “From the bottom of our hearts, we would like to deeply thank each and every person that stopped by!”

Q1: Who did Addison raise money for?
Q2: How did Addison raise money?

News 2

Last week, France announced that the country will pave 621 miles of road with solar panels over the next five years, with the goal of providing cheap, renewable energy to five million people.

Called “the Wattway,” the roads will be built through joint efforts with the French road-building company Colas and the National Institute of Solar Energy. The company spent the last five years developing solar panels that are only about a quarter of an inch thick and are strong enough to stand up to heavy highway traffic without breaking or making the roads more slippery. The panels are also designed so that they can be installed directly on top of existing roadways, making them relatively cheap and easy to install.

France isn’t the first country to kick around the idea of paving its roads with solar panels. In November 2015, the Netherlands completed a 229-foot-long bike path paved with solar panels as a test for future projects. However, this is the first time a panel has been designed to be laid directly on top of existing roads and the first project to install the panels on public highways.

Q3: What was France's purpose of constructing the Wattway?
Q4: What is special about the solar panels used in the Wattway?

News 3

Lions have disappeared from much of Africa, but for the past few years scientists have wondered if the big cats were hanging on in remote parts of Sudan and Ethiopia. Continuous fighting in the region has made surveys difficult. But scientists released a report Monday documenting, with hard evidence, the discovery of "lost lions."

A team with Oxford University’s Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, supported by a charity organization, spent two nights in November camping in the National Park in northwest Ethiopia, on the Ethiopia-Sudan border. The researchers set out six camera traps capturing images of lions, and they identified lion tracks.

The scientists concluded that lions are also likely to live in the neighbouring National Park across the border in Sudan. The International Union for Conservation of Nature had previously considered the area a "possible range" for the species, and local people had reported seeing lions in the area, but no one presented convincing evidence.

Q5: What has made it difficult to survey lions in remote parts of Sudan and Ethiopia?
Q6: What was the main purpose of the research?
Q7: What did the researchers find in the National Park?

Section B
Passage 1

M: I bet you're looking forward to the end of this month. Are you?
W: Yes, I am. How did you know?

M: David told me you had a special birthday coming up.
W: Oh…yeah that's right. This year will be my golden birthday.

M: What does that mean? I've never heard of a golden birthday.
W: I've actually just learnt this concept myself. Fortunately, just in time to celebrate. A golden or lucky birthday is when one turns the age of their birth date. So, for example, my sister's birthday is December 9th and her golden birthday would have been the year she turned nine years old. Come to think of it, my parents did throw her a surprise party that year.

M: Interesting. Too bad I missed mine. My golden birthday would've been four years ago. I assume you got big plans then.
W: Actually yes. My husband is planning a surprise holiday for the two of us next week. I have no idea what he's got in mind, but I'm excited to find out. Has he mentioned anything to you?

M: He might have.
W: Anything you'd like to share? I'm dying to know what kind of trip he has planned on where we're going.

M: You know nothing at all?
W: Not a clue. Hard to imagine, isn’t it? Though I must say I think he's been having even more fun keeping the secret from me in the past few weeks.

M: I'm sure both of you will have a fantastic time. Happy golden birthday! I can't wait to hear all about it when you get back.

Q8. What is the woman looking forward to?
Q9. What did the woman's parents do on her sister's lucky birthday?
Q10. What is the woman eager to find out about?
Q11. What does the man say at the end of the conversation?

Passage 2

W: Mr. Green, what do you think makes a successful negotiator?
M: Well, that’s hard to define. But I think successful negotiators have several things in common. They are always polite and rational people. They are firm but flexible. They can recognize power and know how to use it. They are sensitive to the dynamics of the negotiation. The way of rises and falls and how it may change direction. They project the image of confidence, and perhaps most importantly, they know when to stop.

W: And, what about an unsuccessful negotiator?
M: Well, this is probably all of us when we start out. We are probably immature and over-trusting. Too emotional or aggressive. We are unsure of ourselves and we want to be liked by everyone. Good negotiators learn fast. Poor negotiators remain like that and go on losing negotiations.

W: In your opinion, can the skills of negotiation be taught?
M: Well, you can teach someone how to prepare for a negotiation. There are perhaps six stages in every negotiation. Get to know the other side. State your goals. Start the process. Clarify areas of disagreement or conflict. Reassess your position. Making acceptable compromises. And finally, reach some agreement in principle. These stages can be studied. And strategies to be used in each can be planned beforehand. But I think, the really successful negotiator is probably born with six sense about responding appropriately to the situation at hand.

W: The artistic sense you’ve just described?
M: Yes. That’s right.

Q12: What does the man say about good negotiators?
Q13: What does the man say may be the most important thing to a successful negotiator?
Q14: How is a good negotiator different from a poor one?
Q15: What is the first stage of negotiation according to the man?

Passage 1

Some people wonder why countries spend millions of dollars on space projects. They want to know how space research helps people on Earth. Actually space technology helps people on Earth every day. This is called "spin-off technology."

Spin-off technology is space technology that is now used on Earth.

In early space programs, such as the Apollo missions of the 1960s and 1970s, and in the Space Shuttle missions today, scientists developed objects for the astronauts to use on the moon and in space. We now use some of these objects every day.

For example, we have Quartz crystal clocks and watches accurate to within one minute a year. We purify the water we drink with a water filter designed for the astronauts' use in space.

The cordless, hand-held tools we use in our homes, such as vacuum cleaners, flashlights, drills and saws came from the technology of these early space programs.

On cold winter days we can stay warm with battery-operated gloves and socks, and specially made coats and jackets. All of these clothes are similar to the spacesuit designs that kept astronauts comfortable in the temperatures of the moon, and are spin-offs from space technology.

These products are only a few examples of the many ways space technology helps us in our everyday lives. No one knows how new spin-off technology from the International Space Station will help us in the future.

Q16: What do some people want to know about space exploration?
Q17: What did scientists do for the space shuttle missions?
Q18: What does the speaker say about Quartz crystal clocks and watches?

Section C

Passage 3

If you are lost in the woods, a little knowledge can turn what some people call a hardship into an enjoyable stay away from the troubles of modern society. When you think you are lost, sit down on a log, or a rock, or lean against a tree, and recite something that you have memorized, to bring you mind to a point where it’s under control.
Don’t run blindly. If you must move, don’t follow a stream unless you know it, and in that case, you are not lost. Streams, normally flow through wetland before they reach a lake or a river. Though there are more eatable plants, there may also be wild animals, poisonous snakes, and other hazards. Many experts feel that it’s wisest to walk uphill. At the top of most hills and mountains, are trails leading back to civilization
. If there are no trails, you are much easier to be seen on top of a hill, and you may even spot a highway, or a railroad from this point. Nowadays, the first way someone will search for you is by air. In a wetland, or in dense growth, you are very hard to spot. Anytime you go into the woods, somebody should know where you are going, and when you expect to return
. Also, when someone comes looking, you should be able to signal to them.

Questions 22-25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
22. What does the speaker advise you to do first if you are lost in the woods?
23. What will happen if you follow an unknown stream in the woods?
24. What do many experts think is the wisest thing to do if you are lost in the woods?
25. What should you do before you go into the woods?


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